Hardcopy Sources of Surface Climatic Data

Part I
Colonial Africa

John F. Griffiths
Department of Meteorology
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843

Thomas C. Peterson
National Climatic Data Center/NOAA
Asheville, NC 28801 USA

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Studies of actual change of climate around the world must rely on past observations. It is obvious that as one goes further back in time the number of stations making such measurements decreases and in some regions so few stations exist that determining a real change of some climatic element is virtually impossible. Unfortunately, much of the continent of Africa falls into this category if one looks only at the currently digitized data. However, there exist many data that apparently have never been collated, let alone digitized; these are mainly the data collected by the colonial powers during their time of control of most of the continent. Attempts to obtain some of these data from countries now independent make it appear that most have not been retained, or their whereabouts in the country are unknown. Fortunately much can be discovered in the archives or publications of the colonial powers.

Many of the publications listed here are not well-known or never made available to the general public, and some are difficult to obtain. To make the task manageable, attention was focused mainly on monthly, not daily, data and sources that were concerned with at least temperature and precipitation. Because of this, it is believed that some guidance for future researchers interested in other variables would be useful and that is the aim of this summary, which concentrates on Africa alone. Other regions will be considered later.

The publications cited here generally take the investigator up to the year in which independence was obtained; which ranges from 1922 (Egypt) to 1990 (Namibia). Egypt however still had many government agencies run by British personnel until around 1951 and data to this date were sought. Eritrea became independent in 1993 after being federated with Ethiopia since 1952. Until around 1950 there were only two independent countries in Africa, Liberia and Ethiopia (Abyssinia) and, interestingly, neither had an organized meteorological or climatological service at the time.

Historical Background

Colonial and national boundaries in Africa have shown many changes since the middle 19th century. This means that sources of data for some areas are to be found in disparate sources. For example, data for Eritrea appear in Italian, Ethiopian, and British records. In addition many colonies came under a European power only gradually, usually beginning at the coast so that data from stations in the interior are not available until a number of years passed.

In order to help clarify the historical situation it is useful to present some relevant information country by country where needed. For the purpose of this project, 1840 is the earliest year considered.

ALGERIA (France) - Coast 1840; High Plateau 1856; all country 1914

ANGOLA (Portugal) - Coast and the Highland near Loanda 1840; interior 1890-1914

CAMEROON - Small area coast/inland (German) 1885; S. half (German) 1900; all (German) 1910

EGYPT - Turkish influence (1840); E. half (British) 1885; E. two-thirds (British) 1900; all (British) 1914

GABON (France) - Coast 1878; all 1885

GOLD COAST (British) - Coast 1840; all 1900

LIBYA - Under Turkish Sovereignty 1840-1910; Coast settled by Italy 1912; N. W. half (Italian) 1925; S W quarter (French) 1946, rest (British) 1943

MOZAMBIQUE (Portugal) - Only the Coast and the Tete River area 1840; extensive enlargement between 1885 and 1890

NIGERIA (British) - Coast 1880; S W half 1900; All 1914

SENEGAL (France) - Coast 1840; Along Senegal River 1885; all 1890

SOUTH AFRICA - Cape Province (British), Transvaal (Dutch) 1840; Orange Free State (Dutch), Natal (British) 1856; Transvaal (British) 1878; Transvaal (Dutch) 1885; all Colony (Union) (British) 1902 [Dutch = Boer Settlers]

SOUTHWEST AFRICA - Walvis Bay (British) 1878; western one-third (German) 1885

For the period considered here, Africa experienced seven colonial powers; Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It is possible to add the Netherlands to this list but data from the Boer controlled areas of Transvaal and the Orange Free State are sparse. The sources will be considered in this order, with short entries for Independent countries and Miscellaneous sources. Some problems arise due to territories, all or part, changing hands and also to name changes.

The countries surveyed here are the Belgian Congo (now Zaire, previously Congo Free State), Ruanda (Rwanda) and Urundi (Burundi). Prior to about 1917, the latter two regions comprised part of German East Africa; they became independent in 1962. The Belgian Congo achieved independence in 1960.

French colonies and areas of influence were numerous, comprising Algeria (independent in 1962), Morocco (1956), Tunisia (1956), Madagascar (Malagasy, 1960), [Comoros and Reunion were part of the colony of Madagascar, the former becoming independent in 1975, the latter joining with France in 1946], French Somali Coast (Djibouti, 1977), Cameroon (German until 1916, 1960), French Equatorial Africa (FEA) and French West Africa (FWA). Mayotte, in the Comoros, rejoined with France in 1975.

French Equatorial Africa comprised the four territories of Chad (1966), French Congo (Congo, 1966), Gabon (1966), Ubangi-Shari (Central African Republic, 1966). Chad and Ubangi-Shari were part of the French Congo until 1910. FWA consisted of nine territories; Dahomey (Benin, 1960), French Guinea (Guinea, 1958), French Soudan (Mali, 1960), Ivory Coast (1960), Mauritania (1960), Niger (1960), Senegal (1960), Togo (German until about 1916, 1960), Upper Volta (Burkina Faso, 1960).

Germany had six territories in Africa but lost these during the World War I (1914-1918). These were Cameroon (to France), German East Africa comprising Tanganyika (to United Kingdom), Rwanda and Urundi (both to Belgium), German South-West Africa (to United Kingdom and later South Africa) and Togoland (to France and the United Kingdom, this part eventually embodied in the Gold Coast). Part of southern Tanganyika was given to the Portuguese colony of Mozambique.

Four separate territories are involved here; Libya (which was considered as Tripolitania, and Cirenaica) was lost to British and French Military Administration from 1943 until 1952 when it became independent; Italian Somaliland (part of Somalia, British Military Administration 1942 to 1950, then back to Italy, independent 1960); Eritrea (to British Military Administration 1942 to 1952, then federated with Ethiopia and independent in 1993), Ethiopia (formerly Abyssinia, occupied 1936 and returned to independence 1942). It must be noted that Jubaland (southern part of Italian Somaliland) was ceded by United Kingdom from Kenya in 1925.

Six territories are involved; Angola (1974), Cape Verde Islands (1975), Mozambique (1975), Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau, 1974), Sao Tome and Principe (1975), and Madeira, which remains a province of Portugal.

In early years, Mozambique was controlled by trading companies, specifically those of Zambezia, Tete, Nyassa, and Mozambique.

The Spanish territories comprised Spanish Guinea (comprising Fernando Poo and Rio Muni, which joined to become Equatorial Guinea, 1968); Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara, previously Rio de Oro) which was annexed by Morocco and Mauritania in 1976; Ifni, an enclave, and parts of northern Morocco were ceded in 1956 and 1969, respectively; Ceuta and Mellila remain Spanish territories, as do the Canary Islands.

United Kingdom
As with France, the United Kingdom held control over many territories in Africa. These were Ascension Island, St. Helena and Tristan da Cunha which remain administered by the UK, Basutoland (Lesotho, 1966), Bechuanaland (Botswana, 1966), British Somaliland (part of Somalia, 1960), Egypt (1951), Gambia (1965), Gold Coast (Ghana, 1957), Kenya (1963), Mauritius (1968), Nigeria (1967), Northern Rhodesia (Zambia, 1964), Nyasaland (Malawi, 1964), Seychelles (1976), Sierra Leone (1961), Republic of South Africa (1961), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe, Unilateral Declaration of Independence 1965, independence 1980), South West Africa (Namibia, 1990), Sudan (1956), Swaziland (1968), Tanganyika(Tanzania, 1961), Uganda (1962), Zanzibar (1961, then federated with Tanzania).

British East Africa comprised Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, and Zanzibar from 1937, but for a few years before this it included Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland included Northern and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland.

Data Sources

For the purpose of this specific investigation, emphasis was placed on obtaining data on mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and monthly precipitation amounts. This is because, as part of the Colonial Era Archive Project, our original interest in these volumes was to digitize selected monthly station data for inclusion in the Global Historical Climatology Network. This section gives the sources used while tables indicate what climatic variables are to be found in each publication. As would be expected, many data appear in more than one publication, for instance, in both monthly and annual summaries - no attempt was made to find all sources. It must be noted that not every issue of every reference has been studied. This is especially true when a country issued both annual and monthly summaries, for attention was focused on the former in the interest of time saving. Also, because a location is cited it does not mean the repository holds a complete set of the publication. Some publications may have earlier starting and later ending dates than given. but were not seen in the search.In the location entry, the following abbreviations were used:

NCDC - National Climatic Data Center, Foreign Data Library, Asheville, North Carolina

NML - National Meteorological Library, Meteorological Office, Bracknell, England

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Library , Silver Spring, Maryland

TAMU - Texas A&M University, Texas, 77843-3150, Author's Repository

These four centers each hold an appreciable amount of hardcopy data for Africa. In order to attempt to fill in gaps the Meteorological Services of the following countries were contacted - Algeria, Belgium, Djibouti, France, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe.

Belgian Sources

B1 Bulletin Agricole du Congo Belge, 1910-28
This is a compilation of climatological sections from the Annual Reports. The best data are for Elizabethville (Lubumbashi), but data presented vary greatly in quantity and variables.
Location: NCDC, NML (1911 - 22)
B2 Elements Climatologiques, Station d'Elisabethville,
Province de Katanga, Congo Belge, 1911-1920
Location: NOAA
B3 Le Climat Ecologique de la Cuvette Centrale Congolaise.
Etienne Bernard, L'Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo Belge, Bruxelles, 1945.
Only gives summarized means of maximum and minimum temperature in period 1930 - 39.
Location: NOAA
B4 Elements Climatologique, Service des Telecommunication
Government General du Congo Belge, Section D'Aeronautique, Leopoldville; Annuel 1935-1940 (Similar publication, monthly, by Service Meteorologique du Congo Belge, Leopoldville, 1951-1956)
Location: NML
B5 Climatologie Mensuelles, Service des Telecommunication, Congo Belge, Leopoldville, Valeurs Sept. 1940-1945
Location: NCDC; NML (1944 - 45)
B6 Bulletin Climatologique Annuel du Congo-Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique de Congo Belge, Bruxelles, 1950-1959
Location: NML
B7 Bulletin de Donnees Climatologique, Service
Meteorologique, Leopoldville, 1957-1961
Location: NML

French Sources


Annales du Bureau Central Meteorologique de France, Paris This covers data from 1877 through 1914. Generally the publication date was about two years after data date, although 1914 data were delayed until 1920. Overseas data began appearing in 1879 (data date) in section II, part I. From 1886 data from Algeria, Tunisia, and occasionally, Morocco began appearing in section B. Commencing in 1882, data for foreign and consulate stations were given, their data are varied and limited; from 1886 these appeared in section C. Section A contains mainly data from France but includes some colonial data on a daily basis.
Location: NCDC (1901-1904, 1907-1913); NOAA (most to 1900); NML (All)


Annuaire Statistique de l'Union Francaise Outre-Mer, 1939-1946, Paris, 1949 Data for many stations for varying periods are given, often through 1939, then data for individual years, generally between 1944 and 1946.
Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC


Annales des Service Meteorologiques de la France d'Outre-Mer, Meteorologique National, Paris, 1951-60,61-70
The format changed from 1951-1960 (Type A) to 1961-1970 (Type B)
Location: NCDC (1951-1959); NOAA; NML


Resume Mensuel du Temps en Afrique Equatoriale Francaise, Brazzaville, Jan-Dec 1945; 1948-Mar 1965
Location: NML; NCDC (1948-Dec, 1949)


Resume Mensuel du Temps, Service Meteorologique de l'Afrique Equatoriale Francaise, Brazzaville, 1950-1965
Location: NML

FRE3 Resume Mensuel du Temps. Agence pour la Securite de la Navigation Aerienne (ASECNA), Dakar, 1961-1965
Location: NOAA; NML

Resume des Observations Meteorologique, Afrique Occidentale Francaise, jusqu'au Decembre 1921, 1923 The data are presented as graphs of maximum and minimum temperatures.
Location: NOAA; NML


Resume des observations du mois, Service Meteorologique de l'Afrique Occidentale Francaise, Dakar, Jan 1923-June 1931
Location: NOAA (through June 1930); NML


Reseau Mondiale, Service Meteorologique de l' Afrique Occidentale Francaise, Goree, Dakar, 1931-1936, This gives means for varying periods then data for individual years. It changes from Format A (1931-1933) to Format B (1934-1936).
Location: NCDC; NML


Moyennes Mensuelles, Service Meteorologique de l'Afrique Occidentale Francaise (A.O.F), Dakar, 1937-39
Location: NML


Climatologie de l'A.O.F., Service Meteorologique de l'A.O.F. (Monthly), Dakar. Jan 1949-1952
Location: NML


Resume Mensuel des Observations, Service Meteorologique Federal de l'A.O.F., Dakar, 1953-Mar 1958
Location: NML, NCDC


French Equatorial Africa


French West Africa

French - Country

FCal1 Bulletin Mensuel, Service Meteorologique de l'Algerie, Paris, Alger, Jan 1874-Dec 1875(Algerie Service Central Meteorologique from Jan, 1875)
Location: NML
FCal2 Institut de Meteorologique et de Physique du Globe de l'Algerie, Observatoire Jules Carde, Tamanrasset, Algiers Feb1932-June 1938, Apr 1947-Nov 1951,
Location: NML
FCal3 Universite D'Alger, Institut de Meteorologique et de Physique du Globe de l'Algerie, Algiers
    A Bulletin Mensuel du Sahara, 1939-1951
    B Bulletin Mensuel du Nord, 1921-1951
Format Changed in 1938; earlier labeled 1, later 2
Location: NML; NOAA; NCDC - A(1949-1951); B(1947-1951)
FCal4 Annuaire, Meteorologique et Geophysique, Institut de Meteorologique et de Physique du Globe de l'Algerie, 1939-51, Algiers
Location: NCDC (1942-1951), NML
FCal5 Bulletin Climatologique Mensuel, Service Meteorologique, Algiers, 1952-72
Location: NCDC; NML (Except 1966 & Feb, May 1959)
FCca1 Moyennes, Totaux et Extremes Releves au Cours de l'Annee, Cameroun Service Meteorologique, Douala 1946 - 1947
Location: NCDC, NML
FCca2 Resume Climatologique,Service Meteorologique du Cameroun, Douala, 1948-1949
Location: NCDC; NML
FCca3 Resume Mensuel des Observationes Meteorologiques, Service Meteorologique du Cameroun, Douala, 1950-1974
Location: NOAA
FCdj1 Temperature Data, Djibouti, 1915-1944 (mss from Djibouti Meteorological Service)
Location: TAMU
FCdj2 Service Meteorologique de la Cote Francaise des Somalis
    A Bulletin Annuel, Paris, 1944-1949
    B Resume Mensuel des Observations, Djibouti, 1949-1951
    C Resume Mensuel du Temps, Djibouti, 1952-1978
Location: NML; NCDC - A (1949); C (1952-1978)
FCma1 Observatoire Royal Tananarive, Madagascar A Resume Annuel 1889-1915; few stations and Tananarive B Bulletin Mensuel, 1924-1938 (Nouvelle Serie 1939-1958)
Location: NCDC; NML (1874-1915; 1924 - 58)
FCma2 Resume Mensuel Madagascar Service Meteorologique, Tananarive 1933-1961 Until 1934 format A, then B until 1937, then C
Location: NML (1941-1961); NCDC (1936-1961)
FCmo1 Bulletin Officiel, Morocco, Oct 1917-Feb 1919
Location: NCDC
FCmo2 Releve des observations Climatologique, Institut Scientifique Cherifien, Rabat, May 1922-1926;1928-July 1932; 1934-1956(slight title change)
Location: NOAA (1923-1956); NML (May 1922-July 1932); except 1927)
FCmo3 Annales, Service de Physique du Globe et de Meteorologique de l'Institut Scientifique Cherifien, Rabat, 1934-1955
Location: NCDC; NML
FCmo4 Institut de Physique de Globe et de Meteorologique de L'Institut Scientifique Cherifien, Casablanca, Au 1932- Jy 1940, 1946-1962 (Monthly - Suspended in middle period)
Location: NOAA; NML
FCmo5 Releve Climatologique, Service de Physique du Globe et de Meteorologique de l'Institut Scientifique Cherifien, Rabat 1951-1966 (Monthly)
Location: NCDC (1951-1962); NML
FCtu1 Annees, Tunisia Service Meteorologique, 1907-1911
Location: NOAA
FCtu2 Service Meteorologique, Tunisia
Rapport, 1921-1932
    A Releve Annuel 1921-1932
    B Resume 1921-1925
    C Resume Sept. 1925-1929
    D Resume 1929-1932

FCtu3 Releve Annuel, Service Meteorologique du Tunisia, Tunis, 1946-1951 Location: NOAA
FCtu4 Bulletin Mensuel, Service Meteorologique, Tunis, 1946-49
Location: NCDC
FCtu5 Temperature Data from Tunisian Meteorological Service (mss) 1950-1990
Location: TAMU

German Sources

    Germany possessed a number of territories prior to WW1 but these were lost, mandated to other countries by the League of Nations, after the conflict. It is not always known when other meteorological services, if any, took over responsibility for making climatic observations.

G1 Deutsche Uberseeische Meteorologische Beobachtungen, Deutschen Seewarte, Hamburg. Volumes appeared that covered data for the period from 1883 through 1914. Some were devoted to data from just one colony or a few colonies, others were wide ranging. In addition, some volumes have data from China, Korea, Morocco, Gold Coast (Ghana), Labrador, Middle East, and Argentina. The type of information given varies greatly so that this source is not listed in a data table.
Location: NCDC; NML
G2 Mitteilungen von Forschungsreisenden und Gelehrten aus dem Deutschen Schutzgebeiten (later issues titled Mitteilungen aus dem Deutschen Schutzgebeiten), 1888-1918 data. These are often referred to by the name of the original compiler F. van Danckleman; H. Marquardsen replaced him in 1912. There are 36 volumes covering the period 1888 through 1929. There is some duplication with data in G1. This source also is not listed in the data table due to the great variety in presentation. Form 1918 on there is very little of climatological interest.
Location: NOAA (1901-1929, Vol. XIV-XXXVI); NML (1888- 1913, Vol. I- XXVI); NCDC (1909-1915, Vol. XXII - XXVIII)

Italian Sources

IG1 Bolletino Meteorologico dell'Africa Italiana, Ministero dell'Africa Italiana, Roma, 1935-1936
Location: NCDC; NML
IR1 Bolletino Meteorologico della Colonie Italiana, Servizio Meteorologica, Libya, 1932-1934
Location: NCDC; NML
ICer1 Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, Roma Ser 4, vol 8, 851-856, 1907; Contributo alla Climatologia di Massawa, F. Eredia & G. Memmo, 1885-1902 data
Location: NOAA; NML
ICer2 Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Roma Contributo alla Climatologia dell'Altiplano Etiopico, Regione Eritrea, Amilcare Fantoli,1966
This book (and ICet3, ICli5, ICso1) is a compilation and description of the climate of the territory prepared by a respected and dedicated climatologist. Concerning the data it is unlikely that any Italian source has been overlooked.
Location: NOAA; NCDC; NML
ICer3 Monthly Values of Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperature and Rainfall Amount (manuscript; Ethiopia/Eritrea 1950- 60's)
Location: TAMU
ICet1 Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, Roma Ser 4, vol 6, 19-30, 1905; Observatorio Meteorologico di Addis Abeba e Addis Alem - L. De Castro & E. Oddone, Nov 1901-June 1904 data
Location: NOAA
ICet2 Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, Roma Ser 4, vol 10, 409-442, 1909; La Citta e il Clima di Addis Abeba, L. De Castro, Nov 1901-Dec 1907 data
Location: NOAA
ICet3 Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Roma Contributo alla Climatologia dell'Etiopico, Amilcare Fantoli,1965 *see comment in ICer2
Location: NOAA; NML
ICet4 Bolletino della Societa Geografica Italiana, Roma Ser 5, vol 3, 845-884, 1914; Sulla Clima dell' Etiopia, F. Eredia & L. De Castro, 1901-1911 data
Location: NOAA; NML
ICli1 Annali dell'Ufficio Centrale di Meteorologico e Geodinamica, XXXm I, 1909 Il Clima Di Tripoli Barberia, P. Martinuzzi & F. Eredia, 1892-1907 data
Location: NML
ICli2 Ministero degli Affari Esteri; Ufficio di Studi Coloniali; Monografie e Rapporti Coloniali, #4, Feb 1912, Roma Climatologia di Tripoli e Bengasi, Filippo Eredia, 1899-1911
Location: NML
ICli3 Bolletino della Sezione Meteorologica delle Tripolitania, Ufficio Agrario, Tripoli, 1919-1931
Location: NCDC; NML (1923-1931)
ICli4 Bolletino Meteorologica della Cirenaica, Ufficio Meteorologica, Bengasi, 1922-1931
Location: NCDC; NML (most)
ICli5 Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Roma Contributo alla Climatologia della Tripolitania, Amilcare Fantoli, 1967
*see comment in ICer2
Location: NOAA; NML
ICli6 Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Roma Contributo alla Climatologia della Cirenaica, Amilcare Fantoli, 1968
*see comment in ICer2
Location: NOAA; NML
ICso1 Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Roma Contributo alla Climatologia della Somalia, Amilcare Fantoli, 1965
*see comment in ICer2
Location: NOAA; NML

Portuguese Sources

PG1 Annaes (Anais after 1915) do Observatorio 'Infanta D. Luis', Lisbon, 1856-1915 Includes data for a number of territories. Delay in publishing about 4-5 years.
Location: NCDC (1878-1915); NOAA (1864-1915); NML (1856-1915)
PG2 Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Coimbra/Lisbon, Anais Meteorologicos das Colonias, 1910-1946
This covers all Portuguese territories, with increasing numbers of stations as years progress. Many stations have missing years.
Location: NCDC (1910-1920, 1927-1946); NML (1910-1920, 1927-1946) 1921-1926 not available in Lisbon
PG3 Anuario Climatologico de Portugal, Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Lisbon
Part II - Territorios Ultramarinos, 1947-1974
This publication ceased in 1974 after most territories became independent.
Location: NOAA, TAMU, NML
PRC1 Observatorio Central Meteorologico, Anais, Lisbon, 1916-1946, Anais, Continente, Acores, Madeira (was pt II of PGI)
Location: NML, NCDC, NOAA
PRC2 Annuario Climatologico de Portugal, Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Lisbon
Part I - Continente, Ilhas do Atlantico-Norte, 1947-1970
Location: NCDC (1947-1960); NML (1947-1970); NOAA (1947-1948, 1951-1970)
PRC Portuguese islands affiliated with continental Portugal

Portuguese - Country

PCan1 Boletim Oficial Angola, Loanda, 1910-
Location: NOAA
PCan2 Resumo Mensal das Observacoes Meteorologicos, Loanda, 1913 -1936 These were printed together with data for Observatorio Meteorologico e Magnetico Joao Capelo
Location: NML
PCan3 Elementos Meteorologicos e Climatologicos, Servicio Meteorologico de Angola, Luanda, 1937-53
Location: NOAA (1950-1951); NCDC (1937-1949); NML
PCan4 Observacoes Meteorologicos de Superficie em Angola, Servicio Meteorologico de Angola, Luanda, 1953-1970
Location: NOAA; NML
PCan5 Resultados das Observacoes Meteorologicos, Servicio Meteorologico de Angola, Luanda, 1952-74; Monthly summaries
Location: NCDC (1952-1957); NML (1953-1974)
PCcv1 Observacoes Meteorologico e Climatologico, Praia, 1942-1944
Location: NOAA
PCma1 Boletim Mensal das Observacoes Meteorologicos no Arquipelago da Madeira, Servicio Meteorologicos Nacional, 1945; Monthly
Location: NOAA
PCmz1 Relatorio Do Observatorio Campos Rodriguez em Lourenco Marques, Servicos de Marinha, 1909-1950; Becomes Annuario de Observacoes, 1951-1964
Location: NCDC (1909-1950); NML (1909-1964)
PCmz2 Boletim Mensal das Observacoes Meteorologicos feitas nos Postos da Colonia, Boletim Economico e Estadistico; Lourenco Marques, 1916-1938
Location: NOAA; NML
PCst1 Boletim Mensal, Servicio Meteorologicos de Sao Tome e Principe, 1957 (Monthly)
Location: NCDC

Spanish Sources

S1 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en la Peninsula, Madrid Observatorio, Dec.1865-1875 (pub. 1867-1878)
Location: NML
S2 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en la Peninsula y algunas de sus Islas Adyacentes, Madrid Observatorio, 1876-1900 (pub 1884 -1906)
Location: NML; NOAA (1881-96, 1899, 1900)
S3 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en las Estaciones del Servicio Meteorologico Espanol, Madrid, Observatorio Central Meteorologico (OCM), Direccion General del Instituto (DGI) Geografico y Estadistico (GE); 1901, 1902, 1903 (pub 1916) Vol. VIII 1904, 1905 (pub 1916) Vol. X
Location: NOAA; NML
S4 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en la Peninsula y algunas de sus Islas Adyacentes, Madrid, Instituto Central Madrid, 1906 (pub 1908) No Vol. # 1907 (1908) Vol. II Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
S5 Resumen Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en la Peninsula y algunas de sus Islas Adyacentes, Madrid, DGIGE, Instituto Central Madrid, 1908 (1909) Vol. III 1909 (1910) Vol. IV Location: NOAA, NCDC, NML
S6 Resumen de Observaciones Meteorologicas- Peninsula y Islas, Madrid, DGIGE, Observatorio Central Meteorologico 1910 (1912) Vol. V Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
S7 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en las Estaciones del Servicio Meteorologicas Espanol, Madrid, DGIGE, Instituto Observatorio, 1914 (1916) Vol. IX 1915 (1917) Vol. XI 1916 (1918) Vol. XII 1917 (1919) Vol. XIII 1918 (1922) Vol. XIV Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
S8 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en las Estaciones del Servicio Meteorologicas Espanol, Madrid, DGIG, Oficina Central Meteorologica, 1919 (1924) Vol. XV 1920 (1924) Vol. XVI 1921 (1924) Vol. XVII 1922 (1925) Vol. XVIII 1923 (1925) Vol. XIX Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
S9 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas Efectuadas en las Estaciones del Servicio Meteorologicas Espanol, Madrid, DGIG Catastral, Oficina Central Meteorologica, 1924 (1927) Vol. XX 1925 (1929) No Vol # 1926 (1932) No Vol # Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
S10 Resumen de las Observaciones, Madrid, Instituto Geografico, Catastral y Estadistica; Servicio Meteorologicas Espanol; 1927 (1932) 1928 (1933) Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
S11 Resumen de las Observaciones, Madrid, Direccion General de Aeronautica, Servicio Meteorologicas Espanol; 1929 (1935) Location: NOAA
S12 Resumen de las Observaciones Meteorologicas, Madrid, Ministerio del Aire, Servicio Meteorologicas Nacional, 1930 (1939), 1931 (1940) ---- 1950 (1959) Location: NOAA; NCDC; NML (1930-1949)

NOTE: In data chart, S1-S7 are classified under Source A, from S8 - S12 are Source B.

United Kingdom Sources

UG1 Colonial Reports For many of the British colonies there are prepared Annual Report of the Governor that began in various years for different colonies, some as early as the 1820s, most ending around WWII. These reprots were never generally distributed being intended for Government internal use only. They were extensive reports, covering export, imports, shipping details, number of persons in jail, information on the Governor's residence, how many lepers were treated, etc. Fortunately, there was, at least in later years, a section of the Meterorological Reports; it often preceded the entry of Mental Institutions or following that of Lunacy! In 1918 the use of a standard format of the Meteorological section was advised. These reports were invariably bound in blue covers and have become known as the Blue Books. These were prepared annually for even the smallest possessions and were sent to the Colonial Reports and collated them, referring to then as Colonial Reports. There are gaps in the series. Location: NML
UG2 Manuscripts (Various Years) These comprise a very useful but somewhat eclectic group, ranging over many years, numerous stations and of varying quality. It is likely that continued searching of the stacks and the archives would bring to light even more useful data. Data are given in various formats. Location: NML
UG3 Meteorological Observations made at the Foreign and Colonial Stations of the Royal Engineers and the Army Medical Department. 1852-1886 (pub. 1890) Data are given for many stations for varying periods. Location: NML
UG4 Symon's Meteorological Magazine 1866-1919 Many of the 54 volumes contain climate data in various formats. Location: NML; NOAA
UG5 Meteorology of India, Poona, India, 1875-1890 Titles vary slightly. Location: NCDC, NML
UG6 India Weather Review, Poona, India, 1890-Date During the period up to Indian Independence, 1947, it contains data for Pakistan and, in a section entitles 'Extra- India', data for Burma, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Nepal, Malaysia, Aden, the Middle East, Mauritius and Seychelles, among other. Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC (1891-1969)
URA1 Reports, Committee of the British Association on the Climatology of Africa, #1 to #10 These ten reports appeared from 1892 to 1901 in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society or Supplements and often contain a relatively small amount of useful data, that may not appear in print elsewhere. Location: NML; NOAA
URA2 Climatic Observations at Colonial and Foreign Stations; I. Tropical Africa, 1900-1902. E.G. Ravenstein. His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1904 A very comprehensive presentation of early data. An outcome of the Reports noted in URA1. Location: NML
URC1 Federation Meteorological Service, Salisbury, Climatic Handbook Supplement, Climatic Tables, July 1931- June 1952 Location: TAMU, NML
URC2 Rhodesia & Nyasaland Meteorological Services Climatic Summaries, Northern Rhodesia, Salisbury, July 1938 - June 1948. ND Section A - First Order Stations Section B - Second Order Stations Location: TAMU, NML
URE1 Annual Reports, British East Africa, Nairobi, 1927-1960 In 1931 Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi) were included. From 1937 only Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda, and Zanzibar were included, although in some years data are given for British Somaliland and/or Seychelles. Location: NML (1937 - 1960); NOAA (1937 - 1950)
URE2 Annual Summery of Meteorological Observations at Selected Stations, British East Africa Meteorological Department, Nairobi 1946 - 1964 (From 1953, East Africa High Commission) Location: NML; NCDC (1946-1947)
URE3 Weather of East Africa, Annual, East Africa Meteorological Department, Nairobi, 1956 - 1974 Location: NML; NCDC
URS1 South African Monthly Weather Report, Dept. of Irrigation, Pretoria, 1920 - Sept. 1925. This includes data from Basutoland (Lesthoso), Swaziland and South West Africa (Namibia). Location: NML
URA Africa
URC Central Africa, comprising N & S. Rhodesia and Nyasaland
URE East Africa, comprising Kenya, Seychelles, Tanganyika, Uganda, and Zanzibar (British East Africa Met Service included N. Rhodesia and Nyasaland {until 1937}, also British Somaliland during the 1940's). In early years, until about mid 1920's, the name was applied to Kenya alone.
URS South Africa, comprising Basutoland, Bechuanaland, S.W.A. and Swaziland. Data from Tristan da Cunha given occasionally.

United Kingdom - Country

UCbs1 General Survey of the Somaliland Protectorate, 1944 to 1950, Hargeisa, 1951 A detailed survey by J.A. Hunt with a small section of climatological data that includes Djibouti. Location: NML
UCeg1 Meteorology Report, physical Department, Ministry of Public Works, Cairo, Egypt; 1875-1950 This first appeared in 1875 and concentrated on data for Egypt and the Sudan. In earliest years, it was prepared by the Survey Department, Public Works Department. From time to time data for the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Middle East, Atlantic (generally Portuguese stations), British East Africa and Indian Ocean islands - some for longer periods. Location: NML
UCeg2 Resume Mensuel des Observations Meteorologique, Observatoire Khedivial, Cairo 1882-1898 (In 1882 'Laboratoire De Chemie') Location: NCDC (1884-1894); NML (Parts of)
Uga1 Monthly Weather Report, Sierra Leone and Gambia, British West Africa Meteorological Service, 1950 - Feb. 1960 Location: NML; NCDC (1955-1960)
UCgc1 Annual Summaries of Observations in Ghana, Ghana Meteorological Service, 1949 -1970 Location: NML; NCDC (1952-1962)
UCgc2 Annual Summary of Observation in Gold Coast, British West African Meteorological Services, Accra, 1951 - 1960 Location: NCDC, NML
UCgc3 Annual Summaries of Meteorological Observations in Ghana, 1949 - 1964 Location: NML
UCke1 Meteorological Records, British East Africa, (actually only for Kenya). Agriculture Department Annual Report, 1904-1927 Location: TAMU (1904,07,08,14-19,21(from 21 on, mostly rainfall)22-23,24,25,26); NML
UCma1 Transactions of Royal Society of Arts and Science, Mauritius, 1849 Gives data for July 1847 - June 1848 Location: NML
UCma2 Annual Report of the Royal Alfred Observatory, Colony of Mauritius, 1887-1951 (From 1951 - Aug 1974, Monthly) Location: NCDC; NML
UCma3 Meteorological Services, Mauritius (mss data), 1960 - 1994 Location: TAMU
UCmo1 Signal Station at Cape Spartel, Morocco, Annual Report of Secretary of Lloyds, London, 1894 -1920 Location: NML; NOAA(until 1913)
UCni1 Annual Summary of Observations in Nigeria, British West Africa Meteorological Service, Lagos, 1949 -1960 Location: NOAA
UCni2 Annual Summary of Observations , Monthly Weather Report, Nigerian Meteorological Service, Lagos, 1952 - 1967 Location: NOAA (1952 - 1961); NCDC (1966 -1967)
UCnr1 Climate Summary, Northern Rhodesia, Rhodesian Meteorological Service, July 1938 - 1972 Location: NCDC (1938 - 1948, 1963); NML
UCny1 Meteorology of Zomba and Fort Johnson, Scientific Department, Zomba, 1901 Data 1897-1900 Location: NML (mss)
UCs11 Meteorological Observations, 1927 - 1938, Sierra Leone, Freetown Location: NCDC (1930 - 1938); NML
UCs12 Annual Summary of Observations, Sierra Leone, British West Africa Meteorological Service, Freetown, 1947 - 1960 Locaton: NCDC (1930 - 1938); NML
UCs13 Sierra Leone Monthly Weather Report, British West Africa Meteorological Service, Freetown, 1950 -1951 Location: NCDC
UCs14 Monthly Weather Report, Sierra Leone and Gambia, British West Africa Meteorological Service, 1952 -Feb. 1960 Location: NCDC (1955 - 1960); NML
UCsr1 Meteorological Observations at Bulawayo, 1897 -1904, Proceedings. Rhodesian Scientific Assoc., Salisbury, V(2) 1905 Location: TAMU; NOAA
UCsr2 Report on Meteorology, Southern Rhodesia Agricultural Department. 1903 - 1913 Location: NML (1903 - June 1913)
UCsr3 Meteorological Reports, Rhodesian Agricultural Journal. 1903 - 1921 Location: NML
UCsr4 Federation Meteorological Summaries, Southern Rhodesia, July 1941 - June 1965 Location: NOAA (July 1948 - June 1954); NML
UCsw1 Annual Report for South-West Africa, 1941 - 1950, Weather Bureau, Pretoria Location: NOAA; NML
UCug1 Annual Report, Uganda - Scientific and Forestry Dept. (1903 - 1905); Botanical, Forestry and Scientific Dept. (1906 - 1923; others later) These used half of the one year plus half of next in Annual Report; 1910 - 1911 not published. Location: NML
UCza1 v.d. Decren, Reisen , Meteorologie, Leipzig Heidelburg, 1879 Meteorologie von Sansibar in Monatsmitteln, by O. Kersten Data for 1850, 1859, 1864 Location: NML

Sources for Independent Countries

E1 Monthly Reports, 1953, Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Meteorological Service Location: NML
E2 Climatic Data, Yearly Report, 1959, Addis Ababa, Civil Aviation Department, Climatological Institute Location: NML
E3 Monthly Climatic Bulletin, March 1959, October 1961- January 1962, Addis Ababa, Civil Aviation Department, Climatological Institute Location: NML
E4 Monthly Summary of Climatological Data from Selected Stations, May 1963, Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Meteorological Service, Climatological Branch Location: NML
E5 Monthly Weather Report, Feb. 1964, Jan. 1965-Dec. 1975, Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Meteorological Service, National Climatological Service Location: NML
E6 Monthly Weather Report, 1976 - Apr.1978, Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Government, Meteorological Department, Climatological Branch Location: NML
L1 Summary of Meteorological Records, 1932-1939, K.G. McIndoe, Report 11, 1940. Firestone Plantations Company, Liberia (mss) Location: NML
L2 Summary of Observations, Firestone Plantations Company, Harbel, 1936-1973 (mss) Location: NOAA; NCDC (1947-1973)
L3 Monthly Report (Bulletin), Liberia Meteorological Service, Monrovia, 1950-Jy 1968 Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC (1953-1968)
L4 Manuscript Report , 1965-1970 Location: NML

Miscellaneous Sources

M1 Annales de L'Observatoire Physique Central Nicolas, St. Petersburg, 1884-1916 Although mainly related to the Russian Empire, these include data from Turkey, Iran, Korea, Norway, China, Mongolia, Ethiopia and even the USA, since Alaska was controlled by Russia until 1860. Location: NCDC (1844-1857, 1861-1911); NML (1837-1894, Exc. 1849)
M2 World Weather Records, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol 79, 1927; 1934, vol. 90; 1947, vol. 105; 1941-1950; 1951-1960 The first issue, covering early years up through 1920 as published as Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 79, in 1927. The next issue covered 1921-1930, plus additional periods for new stations, and appeared in 1934 as Vol. 90. In 1947, Vol. 105 covered 1931- 1940. The fourth in the series was published by the then US Weather Bureau in 1959 and covered 1941-1950. The decade 1951-1960 appeared in six volumes from 1965- 1968, by which time the USWB was renamed ESSA. Location: NOAA; NML
M3 Monthly Climatic Data For The World, NOAA, Washington, Jan 1948-Date This series began in January, 1958 and is published by the NWS on behalf of the WMO. Location: NOAA; NML; NCDC
M4 Reseau Mondial, Meteorological Office, Air Ministry, London, 1910-1934 In spite of its title being in French, this is a British effort. In order to give a good global coverage, stations are limited to two per 10o longitude by 10o latitude box, thus yielding a higher density for mid and high latitudes than in the tropics. Continuity of stations was sought but was not always possible. Notes relating to added or discontinued stations, plus additions and corrections to earlier data are given in most volumes. The period of record covered is 1910 to 1934. Publication began in 1917 and there was generally a delay of 5 to 7 years but, due to the war, the 1934 data did not appear until 1956. Location: NOAA (1910-1932, 1934); NML All
M5 Meteorologische Zeitschrift Berlin/Vienna, 1884-1964, Occasionally contains data for single station or area in various forms Location: NOAA All (Exc 1895); NML All
M6 Petermann's Geographische Mitelungen, Gotha, 1855- as for M5 Location: NOAA (1855-1867, 1859-Date, Few Gaps); NML (1905-1934)
M7 Journal of the Royal Scottish Meteorological Society, Edinburgh/ London Location: NML

Acknowledgements and Credits

For more information contact:

Thomas C. Peterson, Ph.D.
151 Patton Avenue
Asheville, NC 28801 USA
Voice: 828-271-4287
Fax: 828-271-4246
email: thomas.c.peterson@noaa.gov

The authors would like to thank Eric Harris (British National Meteorological Library) and Stan Elswick (NOAA Library) for their assistance and support.

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